INDIA CHINA WAR – 1962 AD
- The seriousness of the Indo-China dispute on the border of Sikkim first came to the fore when China advised India to remember the history of the 1962 war. The question is, does India need to remember that 1962 war? After all, what was the reason that China was successful in beating India at that time, whose example, even after 55 years, it is threatening India.
- It is a historical fact that in 1962, the Chinese dragon defeated India by crossing into its border. But the only reason for this was not the weakening of the Indian Army. The reasons for this defeat found in the Himalayan hills and the list of its guilty people is very long. The story of the 1962 defeat at the hands of China is a story of deception, cowardice, negligence and lack of visionary strategy.
- The responsibility of invesTigating the causes of this defeat at the hands of China was given to Lieutenant General Henderson Brooks and Brigadier Preminder Singh Bhagat. The report that came after their investigation was kept secret for half a century.
- The Government of India has tried to hide the reasons for the defeat in 1962 so far. However, an Australian writer, Nivel Maxwell, was assigned a part of this report for his research. Which this writer made public in the year 2014. Although after that the Government of India removed this report from the Internet, but by then it had been downloaded in many places.
- This report by Henderson Brooks raises many questions on the functioning and competence of the then Indian policy makers. And the biggest question is on the then Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru, who had completely failed to foresee the danger coming from across the Himalayas.
START OF WAR
- No major war suddenly erupts. Her role is prepared months in advance. On 20 October 1962, a war-like atmosphere had been created before Chinese troops crossed the border of Ladakh and invaded India. But you will be surprised to know that neither the political leadership of India nor the military leadership had any idea of this.
- India’s then defense minister Krishna Menon was on a visit to the US on 17 September and returned to India on 30 September. Prime Minister Nehru went on a foreign trip on September 8 and returned on October 2, after which he again visited Colombo on October 12 and returned on October 16. Chief of General Staff Lieutenant General BN Kaul was spending holidays in Kashmir till October 2.
- India-China relations after independence were quite cordial. Nehru used to give example of India’s brotherhood with China. By making a Panchsheel agreement with China, Nehru also approved China’s suzerainty in Tibet. But the Dalai Lama’s presence in India was continuously disturbing China.
- China wanted to teach India a lesson. But Nehru always felt that China could not fight with India. The Henderson Brooks report states that Nehru decided to adopt a forward policy with China in 1959. Under this, army posts were made on the McMahon Line dividing the border of China and India.
- But no supply line was made smoothly for reinforcements of the soldiers posted at these forward posts built on the inaccessible hills of the Himalayas. Nehru-Menon thought that China would be scared by these posts and there would be no war. But war took place and it took 10 to 15 days for the Indian troops stationed at these posts to reach the necessary logistics.
- On the other hand, Chinese soldiers came with complete preparations. Despite tremendous courage and valor, Indian soldiers could not protect these posts without food and logistics.
- Lt Gen BM Kaul, the most loved officer of Defense Minister Krishna Menon, was made the commander of this war. As a commander during the war, Kaul should have been in the eastern region of India but he became ‘sick’. He came back to Delhi and got admitted in the Military Hospital.
- Writer Inder Malhotra writes about this that the Indian Army’s strategy against the powerful enemy was being made from the hospital in Delhi. Later, he conducted this war from his home on Moti Lal Nehru Road in Delhi. Despite this, Menon kept Kaul as the commander.
NO USE OF AIR FORCE FROM INDIAN SIDE
- In this war lasting for a month, both countries did not use the air force. The Nehru government is also criticized for not using the Indian Air Force to stop China’s advancing army.
- Retired Air Commodore Ramesh Phadke has written in one of his articles that then Lieutenant General SSP Thorat had some other options before the Defense Minister. But Krishna Menon did not allow those options to come before Nehru. This war became the biggest example of mistrust and misunderstanding between the political and military leadership of any country.
On 21 November 1962, China announced a unilateral ceasefire.
NOTE:– All the information provided in this article is based on the research on the internet and from different websites.