ALL THREE BATTLES OF PANIPAT – 1526, 1556, 1761 AD
FISRT BATTLE OF PANIPAT – 1526 AD
- The battle took place between two great powers, Babur, the then ruler of Kabul and Ibrahim Lodhi, the king of the Delhi Sultanate. It was fought near Panipat (present day Haryana).
- The first battle of Panipat saw the rise of the Mughals, which used the most powerful forces in Indian history. According to history, this was the oldest Indian war, in which gunpowder firearms and regional army were used.
- Although Babur had a combat force of 8,000 soldiers and Lodhi had 400 war elephants with around 40,000 soldiers. Nevertheless the main element is that for Babur the use of cannon in the battle field proved very useful for him.
- In addition to fighting and defeating men, cannons were a powerful and cause of mayhem among them to frighten elephants. In the end, it was Babur’s victory and he established the Mughal Empire, while Ibrahim Lodhi was killed in the war
SECOND BATTLE OF PANIPAT – 1556 AD
- The second battle of Panipat marked the beginning of Akbar’s rule in India, as it was his first year when he ascended the throne. The battle was fought between Akbar and Muhammad Adil Shah with his prime minister Hemu. In 1556, Akbar successfully assumed the throne of his father, at that time the Mughals spread to Kabul, Kandahar and parts of Delhi and Punjab. Hemu was the army chief of the then Afghan Sultan Mohammad Adil Shah, who was the ruler of Chunar. Adil Shah wanted to end the rule of the Mughals from India.
- Taking advantage of Humayun’s death, he managed to capture the rule of Agra and Delhi without any difficulty, but this was not the end of the fight. Bairam Shah, who was the chief minister and patron of Akbar, stood before Delhi with a large army.
- The war was fought at Panipat with strong rivals from both sides. Hemu had a large army with 1500 war elephants, Hemu was killed by an arrow in Ki’s eye causing him to faint, the army was horrified to see their unconscious leader. The Mughals wore the crown with victory in the war and the war ended.
- Hemu was beheaded and the torso was made to go to Delhi to celebrate the glorious Mughal victory. Thus, it was the ferocious war that restored the strong Mughal Empire in which Akbar had a powerful reign to make history.
THIRD BATTLE OF PANIPAT – 1761 AD
- The third battle of Panipat was fought between the Afghans and the Marathas. The war was significant as it marked the end of Maratha dominance in India. During this time of war, Afghans were under the leadership of Ahmed Shah Abdali and Marathas under the leadership of Bajirao Peshwa established control in northern India.
- The defeat of the Marathas at the Battle of Panipat during the eighteenth century saw a new beginning of colonial rule in India. The main reason for the Marathas’ defeat in the war was that the allies did not side with them due to their brutal behavior during the previous years. The Sikhs, Jats, Awadh kingdoms, Rajputs and many all the important rulers were greatly disturbed by the behavior of the Marathas.
- The third battle of Panipat was fought between the present-day Kala Aon and Sanauli Road. Both armies moved across the lines, but intellectually Afghanistan had cut all possible lines for the Maratha forces.
- The Maratha army consisted of cannons. They protected themselves with the help of infantry, bowmen, gunmen and soldiers. The cavalry was instructed to wait behind the artillery and bayonet sharps. They were ready to strike when control of the battlefield was fully established. Behind the line were thirty thousand youths, who were not experts in fighting, and thirty thousand civilians.
- This civic line included many middle class men, women, children who traveled to holy places and temples and made pilgrimage to Aryan land. Behind the civilian line was another protective infantry line consisting of relatively young and experienced soldiers.
- On the other hand, in the Third Battle of Panipat, the Afghans formed a similar type of military, the left wing formed by Najib’s Rohilla and the right center formed by two brigades of Persian soldiers. The left center was controlled by two high officials, Shuja-ud-Daulah and Vizir Shah Wali of Ahmed Shah. The proper center included Rohilla, under Hafiz Rahmat and other heads of the Indian Pathan.
- The choice led the left side, which was made up of well-chosen Afghan riders. In this way the army moved forward with Shah at the center so that he could see and control the war. The battle lasted for two months, which eventually ended the dominance of the Marathas and India gained prominence.
NOTE:– All the information provided in this article is based on the research on the internet and from different websites.